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NTRC-dependent redox balance of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins is needed for optimal function of the photosynthetic apparatus


J.M. Pérez-Ruiz, B. Naranjo, V. Ojeda, M. Guinea, F.J. Cejudo Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 2017, Vol. 45, 12069- 12074

Thiol-dependent redox regulation allows the rapid adaptation of chloroplast function to unpredictable changes in light intensity. Traditionally, it has been considered that chloroplast redox regulation relies on photosynthetically reduced ferredoxin (Fd), thioredoxins (Trxs), and an Fd-dependent Trx reductase (FTR), the Fd-FTR-Trxs system, which links redox regulation to light. More recently, a plastid-localized NADPH-dependent Trx reductase (NTR) with a joint Trx domain, termed NTRC, was identified. NTRC efficiently reduces 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs), thus having antioxidant function, but also participates in redox regulation of metabolic pathways previously established to be regulated by Trxs. Thus, the NTRC, 2-Cys Prxs, and Fd-FTR-Trxs redox systems may act concertedly, but the nature of the relationship between them is unknown. Here we show that decreased levels of 2-Cys Prxs suppress the phenotype of the Arabidopsis thaliana ntrcKO mutant. The excess of oxidized 2-Cys Prxs in NTRC-deficient plants drains reducing power from chloroplast Trxs, which results in low efficiency of light energy utilization and impaired redox regulation of Calvin–Benson cycle enzymes. Moreover, the dramatic phenotype of the ntrc-trxf1f2 triple mutant, lacking NTRC and f-type Trxs, was also suppressed by decreased 2-Cys Prxs contents, as the ntrc-trxf1f2-Δ2cpmutant partially recovered the efficiency of light energy utilization and exhibited WT rate of CO2 fixation and growth phenotype. The suppressor phenotype was not caused by compensatory effects of additional chloroplast antioxidant systems. It is proposed that the Fd-FTR-Trx and NTRC redox systems are linked by the redox balance of 2-Cys Prxs, which is crucial for chloroplast function.


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